In theory, patient portals are supposed to improve communication between patients and clinicians and encourage patients to become more engaged in their care, thereby producing better outcomes. There has also been a belief that if patients can view test results online and have non-urgent concerns resolved via email, it would help cut down on in-person use of health care services and allow the system to function more efficiently.
But a new study, carried out by Kaiser Permanente and published last month in the Journal of the American Medical Association, has found that the case for efficiency might be wishful thinking.
Previous studies that have examined patient use of health information technology have mostly been small. This study was a large one, involving about 44,000 Kaiser Colorado members who had online access to their medical record and 44,000 who did not. Both groups were followed before and after the introduction of an online patient portal.
The results were surprising. Contrary to what the researchers expected, patient use of the portal was associated with more, rather than fewer, office visits and telephone calls. The researchers found an 8 percent increase in the volume of phone calls from these patients and a 16 percent increase in office visits.
Patients who had access to the online portal also made more visits to the clinic after hours, went to the emergency room more often and were hospitalized more often than those who weren’t signed up for the portal.
Is there a connection between online access to medical information and care-seeking behavior by patients? The study wasn’t designed to explore this, although Dr. Ted Palen, the lead author, speculated in an accompanying audio interview that patients who anticipated needing more care may have been more likely to sign up for the portal in the first place.
It’s an intriguing study because there’s still much that isn’t clear about how health information technology is shaping patient behavior and the impact this has on the delivery of health care. Which patients are more likely to use online access to their doctor and their medical record? Do patient portals foster more engagement? Are outcomes better for these patients? When a medical practice decides to offer an online patient portal, does it promote more efficient communication or does it create an extra burden?
This last point is important. An 8 percent increase in phone calls or a 16 percent increase in office visits might not sound like much, but when it’s applied across a system with thousands of patients, it can add up to a significant impact, Dr. Palen points out.
Health systems considering the use of patient portals need to ask themselves whether they have the capacity to absorb a potential increase in utilization, he said. “You’d better plan for that.”
The findings from the study could further dampen the enthusiasm for online patient portals, which the health care system has been slow to adopt anyway. What we don’t know, however, is whether the additional office visits and phone calls were actually beneficial in some way to patient health, or whether there was a fundamental difference between the patients who signed up for the portal and those who didn’t.
The increased utilization may in fact have been “a good thing” if it led to better outcomes and health status in the long run, Dr. Palen said. But it seems far more study and analysis are needed to truly sort out the impact of patient-centered information technology and how to use it wisely, appropriately and effectively.